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Introduction to JI Leadership

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  • Introduction to JI Leadership

    Introduction to JI Leadership

    Jamaat e Islami Pakistan has the leadership which can run every field of life in its besy way. I shall try to give detailed introduction of JI leaders as that peoples who dont know, get to know these jewels

    Professor Khursheed Ahmed , the best economist in Pakistan

    Complete Profile Prof. Khurshid Ahmad

    Date of Birth:23rd March, 1932
    Place of Birth: Delhi (India)
    Educational Qualifications:
    Hon. Ph.D. (Education) University of Malaysia
    Hon. Ph.D.(Litt) Loughborough University UK
    Hon.Phd.D(Islamic Economics),University of Malaysia
    M.A. (Economics)
    M.A 1982
    Present Mailing Address:

    Institute of Policy Studies,
    House 1, Street 8, F-6/3
    Islamabad-44000, (PAKISTAN)
    Tel: (051) 8438391-3,Fax: (051) 8438390


    The Islamic Foundation
    Markfield Dawah Centre,
    Ratby Lane,, Markfield,
    Leicestershire LE67 9SY (U.K.)
    Tel01530)244944/5, Fax01530) 244946
    Academic & Administrative Responsibilities:


    Chairman, Institute of Policy Studies Islamabad, PAKISTAN.

    1979 todate

    Chairman, The Islamic Foundation Leicester, U.K. (Head Office), Branches in Nairobi, Kenya & Kano, Nigeria.

    1978 todate

    Member, Board of Trustees, International Islamic University Islamabad, PAKISTAN.

    1980 todate

    Member, Foundation Council Royal Academy for Islamic Civilization Amman, JORDAN.

    1987 todate

    Member, Board of Trustees Islamic Centre, Zaria, NIGERIA.

    1976 todate

    Vice President, Islamic Research Academy Karachi and Lahore, PAKISTAN.

    1979 todate

    Rector, Markfield Institute of Higher Education, Leicester, UK

    2001 todate

    Member, Senate of Pakistan

    March 2003-todate


    Member, Senate of Pakistan.


    Federal Minister (Planning, Development & Statistics) Government of Pakistan and Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, PAKISTAN.

    August 1978 -April 1979

    Advisor, King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, SAUDI ARABIA.

    1976 - 1983

    Chairman, International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University Islamabad, PAKISTAN.

    1983 - 1987

    President, International Association for Islamic Economics, Leicester, U.K.

    1984 - 1992

    Member, Supreme Advisory Council, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, SAUDIARABIA.

    1979 - 1983

    Vice-President, Standing Conference on Jews, Christians & Muslims in Europe, Berlin and London, U.K.

    1974 - 1978

    Co-Chairman, Christian-Muslim Dialogue Chembasey, SWITZERLAND.

    June 1976

    Member, Advisory Council, Centre for the Study of Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations, Selly Oak Colleges, Birmingham, U.K.

    1976 - 1978

    Member, National Hijra Committee, Government of Pakistan.

    1978 - 1983

    Member, Committee of Jurists Invited by the Prime Minister of Sudan to evaluate Islamic Laws of Sudan, SUDAN

    Dec. 1986 - Feb. 1987

    Member, International Review Committee, Islamic Research & Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah.Saudi Arabia

    July 1988 - March 1989

    Member, International Review Committee, Islamic Research & Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah. Saudi Arabia

    July 1988 - March 1989

    Chairman, Senate of Pakistan Standing Committee on Finance, Economic Affairs & Planning

    July 1991- March 1997


    Proportional Representation and Revival of the Political Process, Islamabad, Institute of Policy Studies, 1983, 1986, 1993 (3rd edition). (also translated in Urdu)
    Studies in Islamic Economics, (Editor & Contributor, Leicester, Islamic Foundation, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1986.
    Towards Monetary and Fiscal System of Islam, Islamabad, Institute of Policy Studies, 1981.
    Budget 1980-81, Need for A New Strategy, Islamabad, Institute of Policy Studies, 1980.
    Pakistan�s Economic Challenge and the Budget, Islamabad, Institute of Policy Studies, 1979.
    Proportional Representation, Islamabad, Institute of Policy Studies, 1979 (with Mukhtar Hassan & Mati-ur-Rahman).
    Islam: Its Meaning and Message, (Editor & Contributor), Leicester, Islamic Foundation � 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1988 ( printed in Pakistan,1993); also printed in Korean language by Islamic Council of Europe,1982).
    Islamic Perspectives � Studies in Honour of Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Leicester, Islamic Foundation, 1979, 1987 (Editor & Contributor with Dr. Zafar Ishaque Ansari).
    The Qur�an: Basic Teachings, Leicester, (with Prof. T.B. Irving & Dr. M.M. Ahsan), Leicester, Islamic Foundation 1979, 1992; also printed by Hijra Council, Govt. of Pakistan, 1980.
    Family Life in Islam, Leicester, Islamic Foundation, Ist ed. 1974, 2nd ed. 1982. Also published in Japanese, Arabic, French, Turkish & Yugoslavian.
    Islam and the West, Lahore, Islamic Publications Ltd. Ist ed. 1958, 2nd ed. 1977. Also published in Persian: Islam Wa Gharb, Qum, several editions.
    Fanaticism, Intolerance and Islam, Lahore, Islamic Publications Ltd. Ist ed. 1956, 2nd ed. 1978, 3rd ed. 1986. Also published in Indonesian & Bengali.
    The Religion of Islam, Lahore, Islamic Publications Ltd. 1st ed. 1960, 2nd revised ed. 1978. Also published in Arabic, Hindi, Korean & Chinese. Also published by the Islamic Foundation, Leicester & Nairobi & the M.S.A. Plainfield, USA.
    Principles of Islamic Education, Lahore, Islamic Publications, 2nd ed. 1962, 6th ed. 1978. Also published in Arabic, German, Indonesian, Malay & Turkish.
    Essays on Pakistan Economy, Karachi, Urdu College, 1958.
    Studies in the Family Law of Islam, Karachi, Chiragh-e-Rah Publications, 1960.
    An Analysis of the Munir Report, Jama�at-e-Islami, 1956.
    Lectures on Economics: An Introductory Course, Karachi, Institute of Chartered Accounts, 1968.
    Economic Development in an Islamic Framework, Leicester, The Islamic Foundation, 1979.
    Maulana Mawdudi: An Introduction to His Vision of Islam and Islamic Revival, (with Dr Zafar Ishaq Ansari), Leicester, 1979.
    Christian Mission and Islamic Dawah, (with Dr. David Kerr) Geneva, International Review of Missions, Oct. 1976. Also reprinted by the Islamic Foundation, Leicester, 1982.
    The Holy Quran: An Introduction, Karachi, Jamiyat-e-Falah Publications, 1965.
    The Prophet of Islam, (with Ahmad Anas) Karachi, Jamiyat-e-Falah Publications, 1965.
    The Position of Woman in Islam, (with Nuzhat Afza) Nairobi, Islamic Foundation, 1967. (Several ed.); also published in Kuwait & Pakistan, 1982.
    Islamic Approach to Development : Some policy Implications, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1994. (also translated in Urdu by Sahibzada Muhibbul Haq).
    Islamic Resurgence: Challenges, Directions & Future Perspectives, A Roundtable with Prof. Khurshid Ahmad, ed. Ibrahim M.Abu Rabi), by World & Islam Studies Enterprise,USA, 1994; reprinted by Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1995, 1996 (translated in Urdu by Muslim Sajjad as � �hya-e-Islam�, 1998 .
    The Crisis of Political System in Pakistan and The Jama�at-e-Islami, by Mansoorah, Lahore, 1996.
    Islam Basic Principles & Characteristics, Leicester, The Islamic Foundation, 1974, 1980 (also translated in Spanish).
    The Contemporary Economic Challenges and Islam � Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 2002.


    The Nature of Islamic Resurgence�, in Voices of Resurgent Islam, edited by John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, pp. 218-229
    �Contemporary Economic Challenges and the Islamic Response�, in Pakistan: 35 Years after Independence, edited by Herausgengeban, Von & Karl J Newman, Deutsch-Pakistanisches Forum, Hamburg, 1983, pp. 247-260 (Summary of German).
    �Some Thoughts on a Strategy for Development under an Islamic Aegis�, in Islam and New International Economic Order: The Social Dimension, Geneva, International Institute for Labour Studies, 1980. Also available in French Islam et nouvel ordre economique International, Geneva.
    �A Muslim Response� in World Faiths and the New World Order, edited by Joseph Gremillion et al Washington, Inter-religious Peace Colloquium, 1978.
    "Inaugural Address" (pp.1-10),"Elimination of Riba: Concept and Problems" (pp33-53)", and "Self-Reliance and Elimination of Riba" (pp181-192), in "Elimination of Riba from the Economy� by Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1994.(ed. 1995)
    �Nature and Significance of Islamic Economics�, in Lectures in Islamic Economics, ed by Ausaf Ali and Kazim Raza Awan, Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Jeddah, 1992, pp 19-48.
    �CII Report on Elimination of Riba : Discussion�, in Money and Banking in Islam, ed by Ziauddin Ahmad et a, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, 1983, pp 233-234 and 255-257.
    �Iqbal and the Reconstruction of Islamic Law�, in Selections from the Iqbal Review, ed by Waheed Qureshi, Iqbal Academy, Lahore 1983. pp, 155-182.
    �Pakistan-India Relations and the Kashmir Dispute� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed byKhalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 165-279.
    �Elimination of Interest (Riba) : The Real Hindrance� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed byKhalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 233-249.
    �Pakistan�s Economic Crisis� I : The Rich-Poor Gap; II:Ills and Cure; III National Priorities� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, BookTraders Islamabad 1999, pp 187-232.
    �Pakistan�s Defence and Security�, in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders, Islamabad 1999, pp 125-13
    �Defence Policy: Principles and Goals�,in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders, Islamabad 1999, pp 115-123.
    �Judiciary and Democracy in Pakistan� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 91-114
    �Constitution: National Aims and Personal Whims�,in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 77-90..
    �Accountability and National Priorities�, in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 61-75.
    �Pakistan�s 50th Years of Independence� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 17-31.
    �Jama�at-e-Islami Pakistan: Objective, Programme, Characteristics and some Basic Facts� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .I ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 1-15.
    �Secularism and Islam : Essence and Implications�,in Pakistan between Secularism and Islam : Ideology, Issues and Conflict ed by Tariq Jan, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad 1998, pp 33-47 and pp 361-373.
    �Pakistan at the Crossroads : Domestic Change and Global Perspective�, in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .II ed by Khalid Rehman et al Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 201-225.
    �Ummah at the Threshold of 21st Century� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .II ed by Khalid Rehman et al Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 191-200.
    �Politics of Imperialism: Lahore and Washington Declaration� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .II ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 149-168.
    �Politics of Imperialism: Gulf War, Pretensions and Logic� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .II ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 133-147.
    �Islam and the West : The Root causes of Conflict� in Jama�at-e-Islami and National and International Politics, Vol .II ed by Khalid Rehman, Book Traders Islamabad 1999, pp 33-49
    �Islam and the West : Confrontation or Cooperation� in The Muslim World, Hartford, USA, Jan-April, 1995.
    �The Challenge of Global Capitalism : an Islamic Perspective� in Making Globalization Good, ed by John H. Dunning, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002, pp 181-209
    �Islamic Finance and Banking : The Challenge of the 21st Century�, in Islamic Banking and Finance : The concept, the Practice and the Challenge� ed by Imtiazuddin Ahmad, Islamic Society of North America, Plainfield, USA, 1999 pp 7-38
    �Globalization: Islamic Perspectives, Challenges and Prospects�,in Poverty in Muslim Countries and the New International Economics Order ed by Munawwar Iqbal and Habib Ahmad, Rutledge Macmillan, London, 2005, pp 15-25.
    �Pakistan: Vision and Reality, Past and Future�in The Muslim World: Special Issue, Pakistan, The Society and State, Hartford, Connecticut Vol. 96, No.2, April, 2006, pp 363-379.
    �Opening Speech� in Monetary and Fiscal Economics of Islam, ed by Mohammad Ariff, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdul Aziz University Jeddah, 1982, pp xv � xviii.
    �The World Situation After September 11, 2001�, in The Blackwell Comparison to Contemporary Islamic Thought, ed by Ibrahim Abu-Rabi, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2006, pp 408-427
    �An Affront to Civility� in Sacrilege versus Civility : Muslim Perspective on the Satanic versus Affairs, ed by M.M.Ahsan and A.R. Kidwai, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, 1993 (second edition), pp 189-192.


    Islami Nazriya-e-Hayat (Islamic Ideology), Karachi, University of Karachi, 1st ed. 1960, 7th ed. 1982, 8th ed. 1986, 9th ed. 1988.
    Socialism Ya Islam (Socialism or Islam), Karachi, Chiragh-e-Rah Publications 1969, 2nd ed. published by IIFSO Kuwait, 1978. Also published in Arabic, Bengali & English.
    Nazriya-e-Pakistan aur Islam (The Pakistan Ideology and Islam), Karachi, Maktaba Nursi, 1969.
    Tazkara-e-Zindan (Prison Diary), Karachi, Cheragh-e-Rah Publications, 1965, 1966, 1995.
    Tehrik-e-Islami: Shah Waliullah se Allama Iqbal Tak (The Islamic Movement: from Shah Waliullah to Iqbal), Karachi, Idara Matboo�at, 1st ed. 1965, 4th ed. 1978.
    Pakistan, Bangladesh aur Junoobi Asia Ki Siyasat (Pakistan, Bangladesh and the South Asian Politics), Karachi, Maktaba Mua�wiya, 1972.
    Pakistan mein A�ein Ki Tadween aur Jamhuriyyat Ka Mas�ala (The Making of Constitution and Problems of Democracy in Pakistan), Karachi, Maktaba Mua�wiya, 1972.
    Adbiyat-e-Mawdudi (Literary writings of Mawdudi). Editory & Contributor, Lahore, Sayyarah Digest Publications, 1969 (several editions).
    Quran Number (Special Issue on The Quran). Editor & Contributor, �Sayyarah Digest� 2 volumes (with Naeem Siddiqui) Lahore, Sayyara Digest Publications, 1969 (several editions).
    Islami Qanoon (Special Issue on Islamic Law). Editor & Contributor, Karachi, �Chiragh-e-Rah� Karachi, Chiragh-e-Rah Publications, vol. 1, 1958, vol. II, 1959 (2 editions).
    Tehrik-e-Islami: Eik Tarikh (The Islamic Movement: Some Historical Glimpses), edited by K. Ahmad, Lahore, Ahbab Publications, 1979.
    Tehrik-e-Islami (Islamic Movement), Karachi, �Chiragh-e-Rah� Special Issue, ed. by K. Ahmad, 1963.
    Socialism (Special Issue on Socialism), �Chiragh-e-Rah�, Karachi, Islamic Research Academy, 1967. Editor & Contributor (several editions).
    Ta�aruf Jama�at-e-Islami Pakistan (An Introduction to the Jama�at-e-Islami Pakistan), Karachi, Jama�at-e-Islami, 1965, (several editions).
    Elan-e-Tashkand per Aik Nazar (A critical examination of the Tashkant Declaration), Karachi, 1965.
    Nazariya-i-Pakistan (The Pakistan Ideology), Special Issue �Chiragh-e-Rah�, Karachi, Chiragh-e-Rah Publications, 1960.
    Fikro Nazar Ki Ghalti (A Failure of Approach), Karachi, Chiragh-e-Rah Publications, 1967.
    Nizam-e-Ta�leem (Education System), Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1993.
    Taraqqiyati Policy ki Islami Tashkeel (Urdu translation of S.No. 25), 1996.
    Ahya-e-Islam: Masail aur Mustaqil ke Imkanat (Urdu translation of S.No.26), Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1998.
    Jamhuriyat, Parliament aur Islam, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1994.
    Pakistani Siyasat aur A�een, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1994.
    Pakistan mein Nifaz-e-Islam, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1994.
    Islami Tehreek: Darpesh Challenge, Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, 1994.


    Translated and edited Islamic Law and Constitution, by Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Lahore, Islamic Publications Ltd. 1958, (several editions).
    Translated and edited Towards Understanding Islam, by Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Lahore, Islamic Publications Ltd. Also published by Tarjumanul Quran Publications, Lahore, The Islamic Foundation, Leicester and Nairobi, and the M.S.A. Plainfield, USA. Also translated from the English text into German, French, Japanese, Portugues, Swahili, Indonesian, Turkish, Italian, Malay, Russian, etc. (Several editions).
    Translated and edited Islamic Way of Life, by Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Lahore Islamic Publications Ltd. 2nd ed. (with Khurram Murad), The Islamic Foundation, Leicester 1986.
    Translated and edited Ethical Viewpoint of Islam, by Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Riyadh, World Assembly for Muslim Youth. Also published by Islamic Publications, Lahore.
    Translated and edited The Road to Peace and Salvation, by Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Islamic Publications, Lahore, 1st ed. 1966, 4th ed. 1976.
    Translated and edited Unity of the Muslim World by Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Riyadh, World Assembly for Muslim Youth. Also published by Islamic Publications Lahore.
    Translated and edited Sick Nations of the Modern Age by Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, Lahore, Islamic Publications, 1st ed. 1966, 6th ed. 1979.
    Translated and edited (with Misbahul Islam Faruqu) Birth Control: Its Social, Political, Economic, Moral and Religious Aspects by Mawlana Abul A�la Mawdudi, Lahore, Islamic Publications, 1st ed. 1968, 2nd ed. 1974. Also assisted the author in revising this book in Urdu in 1962 and wrote a chapter on �A Critical Examination of the Birth Control Movement� (In Urdu) which appeared as Appendix to the book. Also available in Arabic translation, Harkah Tehdeed al-Nasi, Damascus, Darul Fikr, 1965.
    Ma�ashiyat-e-Islam (Economics of Islam) by Mawlana Syyid Abul A�la Mawdudi, ed. by K. Ahmad, Lahore, Islamic Publications, 1969 (several editions).
    Islami Riyasat (The Islamic State), ed. by K. Ahmad, Lahore, Islamic Publications, 1st ed. 1962, 2nd revised ed. 1968.
    Edited Mawlana Mawdudi�s Tehrik-e-Azadi-e-Hind aur Musalman (Muslims & the Indian Freedom Movement), Lahore, Islamic Publications, 1964.


    Alternate Leader, Pakistan Delegation to the Tenth Annual Conference of Islamic Foreign Ministers, Fez, Morocco, May 1979.
    Leader, Pakistan�s Ministerial Delegation to Indonesia, December 1978.
    Member, Pakistan Parliamentary Delegation to 74th Conference of Inter-Parliamentary Unions, Mexico, April 1986.
    Member, Pakistan Parliamentary Delegation to Brazil, April 1986.
    Attended Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers at Tripoli, Dakkar and Islamabad respectively as representative of the Islamic Council of Europe and the Third Islamic Summit at Taif, 1983.
    Attended the Conference of the Chairmen of the National Hijra Committees held under the auspices of the Organization of the Islamic Conference at Makkah in December 1978 and elected its Rapporteur.
    Attended meetings of the Committee of Experts on Book Production, Hijra Programme, O.I.C.; elected Chairman of the Committee in its sesssion at Makkah in July 1981.
    Inter-religious Peace Colloquium, Lisbon, Portugal, 1977. Spoke on �World Faiths and the Changing World Economic Order�.
    Guest speaker at International Seminar at Wilson Centre, Smithsonian Institute, Washington on �Islamic Resurgence�, May 1979.
    Seminar on �Islamic Resurgence� at Boston spoke on �The Nature of Islamic Resurgence� and �Economic System of Islam�, 1980.
    International Colloquium October 1981. Rathko Chappell, Houston, Paper on �Islam and the Search for a New Economic Order�.
    International Seminar on the Inauguration of Arabia-London Lecture �Search for a Just Order�.
    International Conference on Islamic Da�wah, organized by the National Hijra Committee, Malaysia, November 1981. Paper on �Islam in Europe: Problems & Prospects�.
    International Conference on �Development Perspectives for the 1980s�, organized by the U.N. Asian-Pacific Institute Kuala Lampur. Paper on �Religion and Economic Development. The Islamic Perspective�.
    First International Conference on Islamic Economics, sponsored by King Abdul Aziz University and held at Makkah in February 1976. Presented a paper on �Economic Development in an Islamic Framework� and was elected Vice-President of the Conference.
    First International Seminar on Monetary and Fiscal Economics of Islam, Makkah, 1978. Delivered the Inaugural Address on �The task before Muslim Economists�.
    Second International Seminar on Monetary and Fiscal Economics of Islam, Islamabad, 1981. Delivered the Inaugural Address on �The task before Muslim Economists�.
    Christian-Muslim Dialogue and International Conference on the University of Islam, Columbo, 1982. Lecture �Ground Rules for Dialogue�.
    �Islamic Banking and strategies for Economic Cooperation � International Conference of Muslims and European Economists and Bankers, Baden. Key-note address on �The Nature of Islamic Economics� and chaired Group III, Germany, 1981.
    International Fiqh Conference, Imam Mohammed University, Riyadh, 1977. Delivered the speech on behalf of the delegates.
    International Islamic Conference, Rabita al-Alam al-Islami, Makkah, 1974. Spoke on �The Muslim World Today�.
    Secretary General Organizing Committee, International Islamic Conference on �Islam and the Challenge of our Age�, London. April 1976 and of International Conference on �The Muslim World and the Future Economic Order�, London, 1977.
    Visited Holland in January 1976 on the joint invitation of the free university of Amsterdam, University of Utrecht and the university of Kroningen as visiting Professor to lecture on �Islam�, �Christian-Muslim Dialogue� and �Islam and Orientalism�. Also gave inaugural lecture on the institution of the Chair of Islamic Studies at the University of Utrecht (under the chairmanship of Dr. Wanrdenburg) in 1976.
    Attended International Conference on Unity of Sciences, Miami (1980), Seoul (1981) and Philadelphia (1982). Spoke in Seoul (1981) on �Human resource Migration in Oil-rich Economics�.
    International Seminar on Social Justice, Ahmdo Bello University, Zaria, January 1978. Delivered Keynote speech on �Social Justice in Islam�.
    Islamic Educational Trust Seminar, Abdullahi Byro University, Kano 1976. Lecture on �Islam & Communism�.
    Regional Conference of World Assembly of Muslim Youth, Lagos, Nigeria, 1978. Lecture �Shariah and its Applicability in Modern Times�.
    FOSIS (UK) Conferences attended as Guest speaker:
    1966 Lecture on �Islam & the Challenge of our Times�.
    1969 Lecture on �The Prophet as Da�iya�.
    1970 Lecture on �Character Building in Islam�.
    1973 Lecture on �Islamic Educational System�.
    1975 Lecture on �Islamic Movements�.
    1982 Lecture on �The Nature and Methodology of Tarbiyyah in Islam�.
    1987 Lecture on �The Nature of Hijra: Concept and Contemporary Relevance�.
    M.S.A. (USA) Annual Conventions:
    1970 University of Wisconsin, Keynote speech on �The Nature of Islamic Movement�.
    1975 University of Toledo, Ohio. Lecture on �The Process of Islamization: Its Challenges and Promises�.
    1977 Indiana University, Bloomington, Speech on �Mawlana Sayyid Abul A�la Mawdudi�s Model for Islamic Social Change�.
    International Islamic Federation of Students Organizations. Participated and lectured in its international conferences in 1969 & 1971 (Aechen Germany), 1975. (Istanbul, Turkey), 1978 (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), and 1980 (Kuala Lampur, Malaysia).
    World Assembly of Muslim Youth, International Conference, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 1973. Lecture on �Islam & the Contemporary Economic Challenge�, Riyadh, 1976, Lecture on �Islamic Resurgence� in Riyadh, 1979. �The Challenge of the Fifteenth Century Hijra�.
    Association of Muslim Social Scientists, USA, Keynote speech in Washington, 1980. �Socioeconomic Challenges of Islamic Resurgence�, and 1982, Purdue University, West Lafayette, speech on �The Concept and Institution of Shura�.
    International Islamic Conference, Anaba, Algeria, 1976. Lecture �Islam & Contemporary Economic Ideologies�.
    Islamic Council of Europe, London, Conference in 1973. Paper on �Islamic Da�wah in Europe�; 1976 conference, �Islam & International Economic Order�; 1978, �Muslim Minorities�; 1980, lecture on �The Real Significance of Hijra; 1981 Paris, �Islamic Human Rights�; 1982 Paris �The Tragedy of Beirut and Muslim World�.
    YAMY & O.I.C. Youth Camps and Seminars: Kuala Lampur (1979), Lecture �Islamic Resurgence�; Bangladesh, 1980. Lecture on �Islam in the 15th Century Hijra�; Chigwell, U.K. 1982, �Worker in an Islamic Movement�.
    International Conference of Muslim Youth, Tripoli, 1973. Paper on �Islam and the Reconstruction of Education in the Muslim World�.
    Christian-Muslim Dialogue: Tripoli, 1976, member, Muslim team and spoke on �The Nature of Dialogue�.
    Invited by Pontifico Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies, Rome, to give a series of five lectures on �Islam�, 1976.
    JCM Conference & Seminars: Berlin, 1974, Lecture on �Religion: Escape or Reality: The Islamic Perspective�, Holland, Institute for the Study of Religions, 1976, Lecture on �Crisis of Faith & Islam� Bendorf, West Germany, 1978, �The Message of the Quran�.
    UK Islamic Mission Conferences, London, 1969, Manchester, 1971; Glasgow, 1982 Birmingham, 1983, Birmingham, 1984, London, 1986.
    UNESCO International Symposium on �The Moral & Political Vision of Islam, Paris, December, 1982.
    The Message of the Quran Conference, Lahore, Pakistan, 8-10 April 1983.
    Fourth regional Conference of Youth Organization, Southern Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 5-9 May 1983.
    Visit to Kenya at the invitation of Islamic Foundation and Youth Muslim Association Kenya. Lecture on �Islam� and �The Significance of Mi�raj�, 9-12 May 1983.
    Tenth Anniversary Conference on Islamic Approach to Technological Development, Technical University, Kuala Lampur, 2-5 June 1983. Lecture on �Islamic Approach to Banking�.
    Islamic Economic Seminar at Khartoum, Sudan, 20-23rd November 1983. Lecture �Islamization of Pakistan Economy: An Appraisal�.
    Islamic Council, International Conference on �Islam Today�, Islamabad, Pakistan, 10-12th December 1983. Lecture �A Model Islamic Constitution: An Introduction�.
    UNESCO International meeting of Experts on �Philosophical Investigation of the Fundamental Problems of Endogenous Development�, Libregille, Gabon, 19-22 December 1983. Elected Vice-Chairman.
    Conference on �Islam & Commerce� Organized by JAAME, Durban, South Africa. Lectures on �Islam & Development Experiences of the Muslim World� and �Islam & Banking�, 12-19 January 1984.
    Fourth Pakistan-French Colloquium, held in Paris, May 13-18, 1984. Paper on �Islam and International Reactions�.
    International Seminar on Islamic Solidarity, World Muslim Congress, Islamabad, 18-22 September 1984.
    International Conference in Implementation of the Shariah in Sudan, Khartoum, 22-27 September 1984.
    International Conference on �Petro-Dollars & their Utilization�, London, July 1985. Paper on �Islamic Approach to Resource Mobilization�.
    International Training Programme, Government of Brunei, October 1985. Lecture on �Islamic Banking�.
    Asia Society, Washington. Lecture on �Islam and Democratic Values�, November 1985.
    American Institute for Islamic Affairs, American University Washington. Lecture on �Islamic & Western Approaches to Development: A Comparative Study�, November 1985.
    First Assembly of World Religions, organized by International Religious Foundation, New Jersey USA, November 1985. Paper on �Socioeconomic System of Islam�.
    South East Asian Islamic Conference, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, March 1985. Keynote Address �The Nature & Significance of Afghan Resistance�. Also a lecture on �Islamic Resurgence Today�.
    International Conference on �Islam: Force for Liberation�, Geneva, March 1986. Lecture on �Islam: The Basis of Pakistan Movement�.
    International Conference on �Islamization of Banking� Royal Academy of Islamic Civilization, Amman, Jordan. April, 1986.
    International Conference on �Economic Integration of Muslim World�, Istanbul, October 1986. Lecture on �Can there be an Islamic Economic Block?�
    International Conference on �Islamic Social Order�, Khartoum, February 1987. Chairman: Inaugural session with Keynote speech from the Prime Minister of Sudan. Also lecture on �Islam & Economic Justice�.
    International Seminar on �Indexation: An Islamic Critique�, organized by Islamic Research Training Institute, Islamic development Bank, Jeddah, Keynote address at the inaugural session.
    �Trialogue: Jewish, Christian & Muslim Approaches to Business Ethics�, organized by Bishop of Windsor and the Arab Thought Forum under the patronage of H.R.H. Prince Phillip, Duke of Edinburgh and H.R.H. Husain Bin Talal, Crown Prince, Jordan at Windsor U.K., May 1987. Presentations on �Islamic Approach to Business Ethics� and �Future of Democracy in Muslim Lands�.
    International Seminar on �Islamic Banking: A Review of Ten Year Progress�, Organized by The Royal Academy for Islamic Civilization and the Islamic Development Bank, in Amman, June 1987.
    International Seminar on �Teaching of Islamic Economics�, organized by International Islamic University, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, July 1987.
    First International Training Programme on Islamic Economics, organized by Islamic University and Islamic Development Bank at Islamabad, August, 1987. Keynote address on �The Nature and Significance of Islamic Economics�.
    International Conference on Islam and International Economic Order, University of Tubingam, West Germany. Paper on �The International Economic Order: Islamic Perspective�, 28th August, 1988.
    18th Foreign Minister�s Conference, Riyadh, 13-16 March, 1989, as Leader of the Delegation of Islamic Council of Europe. Addressed to the Preliminary Conference on Afghanistan, Palestine and the Intellectual attack from Western media on Islam.
    Member Pakistani Parliamentary Delegation to Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar, May-June, 1990.
    Keynote speaker at 15th Annual Convention, Islamic Circle of North America, Hosftre University, New Jeresey, 20th-22nd July, 1990.
    Member Parliamentary Delegation of World Islamic Movements to United Nations presenting the Kashmir and Palestine issues, March 1992.
    The Symposium on the Role of Islam in Development, Niamey, Niger conducted under OIC � Paper on �Strategy to Face Challenges from other Religions and Non-Religious Ideas� � May 1992.
    Guest Speaker at the 2nd Annual Round Table at World and Islam Studies Enterprise (WISE), Tempa, Florida USA on May 15, 1993. Topic "Islamic Resurgence: Challenges, Directions and future Perspective".
    Ontario Muslim Business Forum by Muslim Students Association at McMaster University, Himilton, Toronto, Canada on Aug 15, 1993.
    Panel Discussion in Georgetown University, Washington, on �Political Pluralism in the Muslim World� on Oct. 25, 1993.
    Speaker at the first session of the CAUS conference at National Club, Washington on �Islam and the West: Cooperation and not confrontation� on Oct. 26, 1993.
    Seminar on 'Zakat', sponsored by the Ministry of Social Planning, Government of Sudan, at Khartoum 25-27th April, 1994.
    Conference of International Parliamentarians against Genocide in Bosnia Herzegovina, at Brussels (Belgium) 28-30th April, 1994.
    Attended �Peoples� Count Conference� at Glasgow, UK on 10-9-94 and presented a paper on �Population & Development Issue in the Third World.�
    Delivered keynote address on �Areas of convergence and Divergence between Islamic & Traditional Banking, including the Challenge of Derivatives� at the Conference on �Investment Opportunities and he Challenge of Derivatives in the Middle East� held at Bahrain on October 25-26, 1994, sponsored by the Ministry of Information, Bahrain in conjunction with Reuters Corporation & International Association of Islamic Banks.
    Member of Pakistan Delegation on �Kashmir Issue� at the U.N. General Assembly, New York from 28-10-94 to 8-11-94.
    Keynote speaker at �International Workshop on Islamic Political Economy & Capitalist Globalization� held at University Science Malaysia, at Penning on December 12-14, 1994.
    Attended conference on �Islam and Arab Culture in the Contemporary World� held by King Faisal Award Secretariat at Cairo, Egypt on January 21-22, 1995 and presented a paper on �Islam and New World Order.�
    Attend the 3rd Annual General Assembly of the Popular Arab Conference held at Khartoum, Sudan on 30th March - 2nd April, 1995.
    Lectured on Islam: A Vision for Britain at the �Convention of Muslim Youths� in London, organised by the Islamic Society of Britain on 24th September 1995.
    Attend �International Conference on Islamic Banking and Finance� held at the Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK from 27-28th September, 1995 and gave a lecture on Is Bank Interest Riba?
    Attend the �Conference on Globalisation of Culture: Implications for the Islamic World and the West�, organised by Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at Ditchley park, Oxford from 29 September to 1st October 1995 and lectured on Islam and the West: Confrontation or Cooperation.
    Attended a seminar organized by International Policy Planning Institute, London, and gave a talk on Political & Economic Aspect of the Western Challenge to Islam.-July 96
    Addressed the 3-day summer School Programme on Islamic Economics and Finance, under the auspices of the European Universities Summer School, Barcelona, Spain-July 96
    Key-note speaker at one day conference on Islamic Economics and Finance, organized by the �University From a Distance� (Open University), Madrid. Spain.-July 96
    Attended a dialogue on Contact Between Civilizations at a 2-day seminar in London, organized by the journal Diplomat.-July 96
    Chaired the Plenary Session of 2nd International Business Forum (IBF) Congress on �Global Business Network Among Muslim Nations�, held at Istanbul on 20-22 November, 1996 and spoke on �The Role of Business Organisations in Economic Cooperation among Muslim Countries�, (organised by MUSIAD).
    Participated In �The Gulf Economic Forum Conference On Islamic Banking And Finance�,held at Abu Dhabi (UAE) in conjunction with International Association of Islamic Banks and delivered Keynote address on �Vision of Islamic Banking and Finance in the 21st Century� - 26-27 November, 1996.
    Spoke on �Islamic Banking and the Challenge of the 21st Century� at Hamdard International Conference at Karachi (3-6 January, 97) on the eve of 25th Anniversary of the Association of Muslim Social Sciences (AMSS).
    Attended �Parliamentary Roundtable� at Bhorban (Murree), arranged by National Democratic Institute, USA on the topic �Accountability Process and Parliamentary Procedure� (1-2 March, 97)s
    Presented a paper on �Islam and Democracy� at a seminar on �Islam and the West� at Riyadh (12. 3. 97), arranged by SANG Deputy Minister for Technical Affairs, Saudi Arabia on the eve of 12th Session of the National Festival for Heritage and Culture.
    Attended a meeting of the Islamic Development Bank, held at Avari Hotel, Lahore on 20- 21 March, 97 to prepare a Memo for presenting to the Extraordinary OIC Summit scheduled at Islamabad for 23. 3. 97 on �Preparation of the Islamic Ummah for the 21st Century�
    Participated and spoke in an International Symposium of �The Islamic World And Global Cooperation Preparing For The 21st Century�, at Kuala Lumpur on 25-27 April, 1997, organised jointly by Oxford Centre of Islamic Studies, UK and the Institute of Islamic Understanding, Malaysia.
    Participated in a meeting of the Panel of Eminent Personalities to consider the IDB draft on �Preparation of the Islamic Ummah for the 21st Century in the areas of Economic, Trade & Finance Cooperation Among the OIC Member Countries�, held by the IDB at its Headquarters, Jeddah (9-10 Sep, 97).
    Participated in 23rd Annual Convention of Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) held at Pittsburgh, USA (4-5 July,98) on the theme �Rediscovering the Family�, and gave speeches on �Feminisim: The Islamic Perspective�, � Protecting Ourselves and Our Family from Hell-fire� and separately addressed the lady participants on �The Mission of the Islamic Ummah and the Role of Muslim Women�.
    Delivered �keynote� address on �Islamic Banking: Challenges of the 21st Century� and was also on a panel on �Islam and Conventional Banking: Similarities and Differences� at the first International Conference on �Islamic Banking and Finance� at Houston, USA, jointly organised by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) and the Rice University, Houston.
    Participated in the First Ever Seminar on �Islamic Economics, Banking & Finance� for South Africa held in Durban, by the Islamic Dawah Movement (ADM) of South Africa, in collaboration with the Islamic Development Bank, and lectured on �Islam and Contemporary Challenges.� (21-23 Aug. 1999).
    Lectured on �Contemporarry Economic Challenges and the Islamic Alternative� at the First Annual Conference of the Association of Muslim Social Sciences (UK), London . (30 Oct. 99)
    Spoke at a seminar organised by the Institute of Bankers Pakistan at Islamabad on �Implications of the Supreme Court Judgement on Riba in Banking� (2 Feb.00) and lectured on �Implications for International Transactions� at a seminar organised by the International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Islamabad on �Financial & Legal Implications of Supreme court Judgement on Riba� (10 Feb. 2000)
    Keynote address on �The Application of Islammic Economics � the last 20 years� at the Annual conference of American Council for the Study of Islamic Societies, held at Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania, USA, and also spoke on �Islam and the West� at a dinner hosted by the said university. (April 28, 2000).
    Keynote address on �Islam and Democracy� at Centre for the Study of Islam and Democracy, Georgetown University, Washington, USA (April 30, 2000).
    Lecture on �Pak-US Relationship after President Clinton�s Visit� at the Middle Eastern Institute, Washington (May 01, 2000).
    Conducted 5-day Teaching Prrogramme(12-16June, 00) for post-graduate students/scholars on �Islamic Revival in South Asia with special focus on Mawlana Mawdudi and Jamaat-e-Islami� at Hartford (USA) Seminary as Bluefield Lecturer, 2000 on invitation from Duncan Black McDonald Center for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, and also (a) gave keynote address on �The Nature and Significance of Contemporary Islamic Resurgence�, (b) spoke at a luncheon on �Islamic Economics � Search for a New Paradigm�.
    Address on �Transformation of Present System to Shariah Compliant System� at Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Karachi, organised by Pakistan Business Forum (08 Aug. 2000)
    Lecture on �Political Instability in the Muslim World � Causes and Factors� in the Islamic International Conference at Lahore, (Pakistan) organised by Falah Foundation.(3-5 Nov. 2000).
    Spoke at a seminar on �Sino-Pak Relations in the New Century� at Islamabad on �Pak-China Defence & Strategic Aspects� and at roundtables on �Education and Culture: Pakistan and china� at Lahore and �China and Pakistan:Economic and Business Dimensions� at Karachi, organised by Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad for a Chinese Delegation of �Chinese Association for International Understanding� (CAFIU) � (13-18 January, 2001).
    Spoke on �Islamic Movements� Key Issues: Concept, Training & Leadership� at �Young Muslim Conference� held at Leicester, UK (03 Feb. 01); Also spoke on �Islamic Movement in the West� at 2-day camp of �Islamic Society of Britain� at Leicester, UK (10-11 Feb. 2001).
    Represented Jamaat-e-Islami and made his presentation at the 15th Meeting of the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG) on the Harare Declaration, held at London. (19 March, 2001)
    Spoke on �Globalization and Muslim Challenges� at 4-day Orientation Course, and lectured on �Islamic Movement in Bangladesh� at the Islamic Foundation, Leicester (UK) (15 April, 2001)
    Gave a speech on �Imam Hasan-al-Banna and His Impact� at Dawat-e-Islam Function at the Islamic Foundation, Leicester, UK (28 April, 2001).
    Lecture on �Contemporary Islamic Movements: Jamaat-e-Islami and Mawlana Mawdudi� at Markfield Institute of Higher Education (MIHE), Leicester. (24 May,2001).
    Presided over the FRIENDS seminar at Holiday Inn, Islamabad, on �Strengthening Political Culture: Role of Political Parties and the Armed Forces� and gave concluding speech on the subject. � (22 June, 2001).
    Spoke on�Understanding Political Islam in a Changing World� at Islamic Forum Europe, Leicester in their Conference on �History in the Remaking: Global Insight�. (5-7 Oct.2001)
    Spoke on �Building the Islamic Movement & Workers� at the opening session of Annual General Meeting of UK Islamic Mission Members at Manchester. (27-29 Oct, 2001)
    Attended as Guest Speaker at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at Ditchlerry Park, UK in the Conference on �The United States and the Islamic World� held in cooperation with Thodes Horse and the Tothermere American Institute, Oxford, and delivered five speeches, including �The United States and the Islamic World: Cultural Imperatives and Strategic Considerations�. (09-11 Nov. 2001)
    Spoke on �Present World Situation and our Responsibilities� at 39th Annual Conference of UK Islamic Mission, Birmingham, UK. (25 Aug. 2002)
    Attended Conference on �Understanding and Responding to the Islamic World after 9/11� at Princeton University, USA and acted as panelist on the theme �Development and Modernization� (27-29 Sept. 2002).
    Participated in a dialogue on �India-Pakistan Relations: Reshaping the Agenda� at Wilton Park Conference (UK) conducted by the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London. (24-28 Feb. 2003).
    Spoke on �Effect of the Emerging Global Scenario on Pakistan and Kashmir� to NIPA
    Students at Kashmir House, Islamabad � 15 April, 2003.
    Spoke on �Globalization and Islam� at Chethan House, London at the launching ceremony of the book �Making Globalization Good� � 2nd May, 2003.
    Presided over the Panel Discussion on �Responsibilities of the Parliament & Parliamentarians in the Budget Process� at the PILDAT Conference on �Legislative Capability Building: Federal Budget Process: 26-27 May, 2003.
    Spoke on �Islamization of Pakistan Economy: Issues and Prospects� in �Pakistan Economic Forum� at Islamabad � 30 May, 2003.
    Lecture on �Ideology of Pakistan�. at National Defence College, Islamabad - 03 Sep� 03
    Parliamentarians Roundtable on Female literacy in Islamic Perspective, on 7th September, 2003, at Holiday Inn, Islamabad..
    Fifth International Conference on Islamic Economics & Finance on �Globalization: Islamic Perspective, Challenges and Prospects at Ritz Carlton Kingdom of Bahrain on 07-09October, 2003.

    Lecture at NDC on �Concept of an Islamic Society� on 12th November, 2003.
    Key note address at IPS workshop on �Family Institution Challenge and their Answers, at Anjuman Complex, Sakhi Hasan, Karachi on 23rd December, 2003
    Presentation on �Islamization of Pakistan Economy�, at Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington on 27th January,2004.
    IPS Roundtable; India-Pakistan Relations: Post SAARC Conference Scenario on 21st January, 2004
    Lecture at NIPA, Lahore �Pakistan and India relations� on 18th February, 2004
    Lecture at NDC �Values, Ethics, Beliefs, Attitudes and National Security� on 9th March, 2004
    Spoke at PIMA Seminar at Shifa Int. Hospitals on �A Riba free economy, the Real challenges� on 24th June, 2004
    Lecture at NDC Islamabad on �Political Role of Personalities & Issues in the Internal Dynamics of Political Parties� on 15fth December, 2004
    Speech at IIU Cultural week at Faisal Mosque Auditorium on 16th March, 2005
    Presentation at Cambridge Quranic Foundation for Sustainable Development on 9th August, 2005
    Key-note addressed on OIC Forum of Scholars & Intellectuals at Makkah on 9-11 September, 2005
    The 6th Islamic Banking International Conference at Jakarta on 21-26 November 2005
    Lecture on �Islam and Democracy� at Ankara on 1st March, 2006
    Lecture at DawahAcademy (Army Officer�s Camp) on 10 May, 2006
    The 35th Session of International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies at ERICE (Italy) on 19-21 May 2006.
    LSE-Harvard Seminar, London on Islamic Banking � Presentation on Tawaruq,Feb.01, 2007
    Dawatul Islam, London, Lectures, Feb 11, 2007
    U.K. Islamic Mission � Youth Conference Walsall, U.K. Feb 18, 2007
    Rotary Club, Marriot Hotel, Islamabad Lecture on Islam and the West, April 2, 07
    Birmingham University, Global Debt Lecture 2007 May 15, 2007
    ERICE CONFERENCE ON Terrorism, Italy May 17, 2007
    Islamic Foundation Leicester - Board of Governors Meeting July 18, 2007
    Long Ditton Trust U.K. BOT Meeting July 19, 2007
    Markfield Institute of Higher Education International -Advisory Board Meeting, July19, 2007
    Markfield Institute of Higher Educa5tion, Board of Governors Meeting, July 20, 2007
    Madina Trust (Bawany) BOT Meeting ,July 24, 2007
    Madina Trust, Peterborough Annual BOT Meeting, July 28, 2007
    Markfield Institute of Higher Education, Lecture : Islamic Finance and Contemporary Economic Challenge Oct 20, 2007.
    Islamic Foundation, Lecture: The Future of Islamic Dawah in the U.K. Oct 22, 2007
    Islamic Development Bank and IRTI Lecture-Video Conference with Four Universities, UK., Jeddah, Pakistan,
    Beirut: Lecture on Capitalism, Socialism, Welfare State and Islam November 06
    Lecture on Pakistan: The Current Situation: Jamaat e Islami Kuwait, Dec 29, 01
    International Islamic Charity Organization Kuwait, Board of Directors Meeting Dec 20,
    International Islamic Charity Organization, Board of Governors Meeting, April 2008.
    International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies at ERICE (Italy), May 2008


    Recipient of Islamic Development Bank Award (1408H/1988) on Distinguished Contribution to Islamic Economics, at Annual Conference of the Board of Governors, Rabat, 22nd February, 1989.
    Recipient of King Faisal International Prize in Services to Islam, Riyadh, 1410H/1990.
    Recipient of 5th Annual Prize of American Finance House, La-Riba, USA, in recognition of his services in Islamic Economics and Finance, at City Council, Los Angeles, Pasadena,USA on 11th July, 1998.